[2][3] The colony's land was periodically granted to various proprietors and split into the Province of New York and the Province of Pennsylvania. Much of the area was part of the New Netherland until the British exerted control over the region. Pennsylvania became a leading exporter of wheat, corn, rye, hemp, and flax,[12] making it the leading food producer in the colonies, and later states, between the years of 1725 and 1840. Society in the middle colonies was far more varied, cosmopolitan and tolerant than in New England. The Pennsylvania Assembly took this opportunity to request expanded power for elected officials, led by David Lloyd. [2] James II later granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had been loyal to him through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton. They primarily pushed farther into the western frontier of the colonies, where they repeatedly confronted American Indians. Deep water allowed for numerous entries … Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730, colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. In an early attempt to encourage European settlement, the New Jersey legislature enacted a prohibitive tariff against imported slaves and in favor of European indentured servitude. Main article: Province of New York. Four of the 13 colonies were located in the area that is still known as New England. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch patroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. [22], German immigrants favored the Middle Colonies. As a consequence, early German settlements in the Americas concentrated in the Middle Colonies region. The Middle Region included the colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware. During this time, many American Indians were displaced. [10] Penn wrote the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania before departing for the colony, which called for religious tolerance towards many groups, including the Religious Society of Friends and local natives. Demarcated at the 42nd parallel north and 39th parallel north, Pennsylvania was bordered by the Delaware River and the colonies of New York, Maryland, and New Jersey. [20], The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to 160 acres, owned by the family that worked it. Quakers, Mennonites, Lutherans, Dutch Calvinists, and Presbyterians were all represented, which made it impossible for one religion to dominate and gave a greater freedom of religion than any of the New England Colonies, with exception to Rhode Island. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe—many as indentured servants. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe—many as indentured servants. The Dutch maintained control of Delaware until 1664, when Sir Robert Carr took New Amstel for the Duke of York, renaming it New Castle. New Jersey and Delaware had a majority British population as well, with 7–11% German-descended colonists, about a 6% African population, and a small contingent of Swedish descendants. These indentured servants were the primary migrant to the British settlements of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, Jamaica and Barbados. Typically religious men of the English or Welsh origin that range from wealthy to lower middle class and are very determined if they crossed the seas to colonize. [9] On July 2, 1776, New Jersey enacted the New Jersey State Constitution, soon after having empowered delegates to the Continental Congress, on June 21, to join in a declaration of independence. Colonial Demographics • Define demographics: • List the key measures of demographics: • Study this chart and the resources noted in the textbook. There was a brisk business in trade. Thus, the definition of the Middle Colonies sometimes changed and overlapped with Rhode Island's colonial boundaries. These coalitions eventually grew into diverse and large political organizations, evolving especially during the French and Indian War. A constitution was drafted and passed on October 30, 1683, giving the colonists many rights, including the rights to taxation without representation. The colonies were divided into three regional areas; these included, the New England colonies known as the northern colonies, the middle colonies, and Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. In 1683, a law was passed that all children must be taught to read and write and be trained in a useful trade. By 1780, about 17% of the population in New York were descendants of Dutch settlers; the rest were mostly English with a wide mixture of other Europeans and about 6% Africans. The First Great Awakening invigorated religiosity and helped stimulate the growth of Congregational, Methodist and Baptist churches. [16] Broad navigable rivers of relaxed current like the Susquehanna River, the Delaware River, and the Hudson River attracted diverse business. Both the poor and the middle class immigrated as indentured servants. Because of the large grain exports resulting from this soil, the colonies came to be known as the Bread Basket Colonies. He instead appointed governors, councils, and other officers to run the government. Once colonization had begun, the Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. The 13 Colonies. Demographics of the Middle Colonies. In May 1688 the province became part of the Dominion of New England. Although the Swedes and the Dutch fought over the land in the 1630s through the ultimately the Dutch claimed the land, calling it New Netherland. The United States Declaration of Independence ended their colonial status. [6] The first governor appointed in this way was Philip Carteret, who founded Elizabethtown. As the colonies were established throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, the population grew immensely, starting at just 2,000 people and rising to over 2 million. As a consequence, early settlements of Germans from many different sects concentrated in the Middle Colonies. The Duke of York never governed the colony himself. [8] Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon became the royal colony's first governor. The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. In 1665, the Concession and Agreement was written in an effort to entice settlers to New Jersey. New York's initial possession of parts of Maine ensured a close relationship with other New England colonies like Vermont and a continuing New England influence in the colony. German immigration greatly increased around 1717, and many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland in western Germany. Demographics/population characteristics The population of Delaware was not extremely different, the colonies consisted of English, Dutch, and Swedish settlers.The majority of the colony spoke English. While some Welsh colonists like Roger Williams, left to found Rhode Island, Anne Hutchinson founded a seed settlement in New York. Pennsylvania, founded by William Penn, is an excellent example of a proprietary colony. Area dominated by larger farms than N.E., smaller than the S.; still there is an emphasis on subsistence rather than cash crops. Colonial status ended for the new state with the United States Declaration of Independence in July 1776. Below are the original thirteen colonies, separated into three groups based on location: New England Colonies, Middle Colonies, and Southern Colonies. Farms in the Middle Colonies were anywhere between 50 and 150 acres with a house, barn, yard and fields. [11] From 1692 to 1694, revolution in England deprived Penn of the governance of his colony. They were noted for tight-knit religious communities, which were often Lutheran. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 was the first attempt to abolish slavery in the colonies and what would become the United States. The Southern Colonies were an Oligarchy, which meant that wealthy plantation owners controlled the government since they could pay for their expenses. With the new arrivals came various religions which were protected in the Middle Colonies by written freedom of religion laws. The North American colonies that were settled by the English are often divided into three different groups: the New England colonies, the Middle colonies, and the Southern colonies. The Middle Colonies were explored by Henry Hudson on a journey into the Hudson River and Delaware Bay in 1609. Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. The Middle Colonies had many places where open access to deep water and protected coves line the shoreline. [21], Ethnically, the Middle Colonies were more diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. [20], Both William Penn and the Lords Baltimore encouraged Irish Protestant immigration, hoping they could obtain indentured servants to work on their estates and on colonial developments. While the Middle Colonies had far more industry than the Southern Colonies, it still did not rival the industry of New England. 17th centuries. As of early 2017, the US population is just shy of 325 million people, a 130X increase over 241 years. *The Middle Colonies were known as the "breadbasket" because of the large amounts barley, rye, and other grains that were grown there.The Middle Colonies produced more food than the New England or Southern Colonies. Identify the cultural groups that made up the Middle Colonies. The chart below shows the total population of Britain’s colonies from the founding of Jamestown, Va., in 1607 to the 1790 census, the first census of the U.S. government. Abundant forests attracted both the lumbering and shipbuilding industries to the Middle Colonies. Except where noted, content and user contributions on this site are licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 with attribution required. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. These colonies were the Province of New Hampshire, the Providence of Massachusetts Bay, the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and the Connecticut Colony. Britain and the Settling of the Colonies: 1600–1750, American Indian tribes that had long occupied the area later to be conquered as the Middle. The first Dutch settlements in the New York area first appeared around 1613. Many great men would come from the Middle Colonies. Map of the United States: Battle Sites 1689-1945. The lumber and shipbuilding industries enjoyed success in the Middle Colonies, and Pennsylvania saw moderate success in the textile and iron industry. Many Middle Colony constitutions guaranteed freedom of religion and forbade taxation without representation. Slavery in the British colonies Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Demographics in the colonies Both the Chesapeake and Southern colonies were made up of a majority of single, young, white men who worked as indentured servants. Welsh Quakers, Baptists and Methodists settled in the Welsh Tract of Pennsylvania. English Catholics, Scotch Irish Presbyterians, German Lutherans and sectarians, Dutch Reformed, and Anglicans were well represented. [26], Many British Middle colonists were Quakers. Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. After joining the Dominion of New England, however, Rhode Island was permanently thought of as a New England colony. New York's charter and constitution were reinstated soon after. [13] When Henry Sloughter became the new governor in March 1691, the rebellion was crushed and its leader, Jacob Leisler was arrested, tried, and executed for treason. The colony also became a major producer of pig iron and its products, including the Pennsylvania long rifle and the Conestoga wagon. [14] A Deputy of the Duke governed Delaware from 1664 to 1682. Following the American Revolution, the Middle Colonies became the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Delaware. The English colonies of New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), Pennsylvania (PA) and Delaware (DE) are referred to as the 'middle colonies'. The Middle Colonies shared the fertile land of the Southern Colonies and many large fields of wheat could be found and they shared the industry of timber and fishing. While both colonies were largely English, the Middle Colonies of Pennsylvania and New York had more nationalities in them due to their religious tolerance. In 1773, Arthur St. Clair ordered the arrest of a Virginian officer commanding troops against armed settlers loyal to Pennsylvania. They were also the most religiously diverse part of the British Empire, with a high degree of tolerance. Fur trappers moved along these rivers, and there was enough flow to enable milling with water wheel power. New England, on the other hand, used the teachings of the church to control the government. It was established by William Penn as a haven for Quakers in the New World. The Delaware Colony later separated from Pennsylvania. When the Duke of York James II became the King of England, New York became a royal province. [12] When the British banned western expansion in 1764, fighting among colonists and against the natives swelled. Middle Colonies Facts The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. This land grant would become the Province of New Jersey.[4][5]. The population of the American Colonies, until the end of the 17th century, was almost entirely English. Munsee inhabited the Highlands, Hudson Valley, and northern New Jersey, while Minquas, also known as the Susquehannocks, lived west of the Zuyd River along and beyond the Susquehanna River. Colonists were required to pay annual quit-rent taxes. 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